A total of 29 countries inked a joint declaration in Moscow Wednesday opposing a European scheme that forces all airlines to pay for their carbon emissions.
The declaration was issued after an international conference on cutting greenhouse gas emissions with 33 participating countries.
The declaration envisages a basket of retaliatory measures to the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS). These could include allowing any country to introduce any measures in line with national laws to either completely scrap the ETS or to postpone it.
Ji Yuan, an official from the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC), told Xinhua that the Moscow declaration is aimed at forcing the EU to abandon its plan.
The EU carbon fees are disguised carbon taxes, Ji said, adding that the EU, as a regional bloc, has no right to levy tax on other countries under international air travel treaties.
In February, China's air regulator CAAC banned Chinese airlines from complying with the EU scheme and from increasing fares or other passenger charges as a result of the EU scheme.
Although the carbon fees have taken effect, the money will not be collected until April 30, 2013.
China has added its voice to a growing global protest ahead of the collection date.
Russian Deputy Minister of Transport Valery Okulov said on Wednesday that Moscow could cut the frequency of the EU flights and create preferences for EU competitors from China, Japan and other Asian countries.
Okulov also warned that Russia could legally ban the country's airlines from participating in the ETS.